Azadirachta indica (commonly known as Neem) have been tried in treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis as a part of various toothpastes and has proven to be successful Its mechanism of anti inflammatory action is by inhibiting prostaglandin E and 5-hydroxytriptamine and thus inhibits the inflammation. The antibacterial action is due to the substance named “Azadiachtin” that is known to destroy bacterial cell wall and thus inevitably inhibit the bacterial growth.
Ocimum sanctum (commonly known as Tulsi) is known as the “Queen of herbs”. It has got antimicrobial effect against the pathogens causing periodontitis. Its 2% oral gel is effective in reducing gingival inflammation Its leaves have antibacterial agents which are present mainly as essential oils. Eugenol, caryophyllene, germarene-A, clemene, and caryophyllene oxide are the five major constituents of these essential oils. Ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, and oleanolic acid are the other biologically active compounds which are present in the form of phytochemicals. These essential oils and biologically active compounds can cause cytoplasmic membrane damage of microbial strains by stimulating cellular potassium release; which are effective against systemic disease-causing bacteria. This is expected that by same mechanism it might have also acted against the A. actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque
Aloe vera is a succulent plant species which shows the presence of carboxypeptidase that helps in relieving pain by inactivating bradykinin by about 67% and also it has compounds which inhibit arachidonic acid oxidation and anti-Prostaglandin synthesis properties, which might reduce inflammation. It is exceptionally useful in the gingivitis and periodontitis management
Syzgium aromaticum commonly known as clove is a plant derived spice that has been traditionally used as a natural medicine for dental diseases. Clove exhibited antibacterial activity against gram negative anaerobic periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. Clove may reduce periodontal inflammation by modulation of the signalling pathway (NF-κB) and suppression of IL6, COX-2 and TNF-α. Besides its anti-inflammatory properties, clove also has antioxidant property. It has an important property for reducing the oxidative stress which is often seen in periodontal disease. It promotes DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging and inhibits lipid peroxidation